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A Handbook of Classical Sanskrit Rhetoric
सौहृदय्यविरोधोक्तौ प्रयोगोऽस्याश्च ॥ भा. का. ३.५५
आशीर्नामाभिलषिते वस्तुन्याशंसनम् । का. २.३५७
इष्टार्थस्याशंसनमाशीः । वा. का. ७
374 Uttaram: Reply:
The word uttara literally means subsequent, concluding, reply, answer,
result etc. The figure Uttara is a poetic statement in the form of an
answer or question-and-answer. Here the question may not be put
verbally but its presumption can be made from the answer stated
therein, and the answer, if given, may not be very common, but can
be conceived by an intelligent reader. The number of question and
its anser may be one or more.
Uttara was first introduced by Rudrata and recognised by
Ruyyaka, Vägbhaṭa, Visvanātha, Mammaṭa, Jagannātha and others.
Two varieties of Uttara are generally found:
(i) based on factual or objective type and
(ii) based on resemblance.
Of the two the first variety bears some resemblance with
Anumana (Poetic Inference), still they are different because there are
both sādhya and sādhana (ie. the major term or the thing to be
inferred and the minor term) in Anumāna, but the major term is
absent in Uttara.
The first variety of Uttara is also different from Kavyalinga
(Poetical Cause) since the answer cannot be justified in any way as
the cause of question in Kavyalinga.
Both Parisamkhya (Special Mention) and the second variety of
Kavyalinga are set in question-and-answer form, but the former
always excludes a famous and well-known aswer. Bhoja includes
Uttara under Sāra.
eg 1. ahanyahani bhūtāni / gacchanti yama-mandiram.
seṣaḥ sthiratvam icchanti / kim āścaryam ataḥ param.
अहन्यहनि भूतानि / गच्छन्ति यममन्दिरम् ।
शेषाः स्थिरत्वमिच्छन्ति / किमाश्चर्यमतः परम् ॥
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