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A Handbook of Classical Sanskrit Rhetoric

सौहृदय्यविरोधोक्तौ प्रयोगोऽस्याश्च ॥ भा. का. ३.५५

आशीर्नामाभिलषिते वस्तुन्याशंसनम् । का. २.३५७

इष्टार्थस्याशंसनमाशीः । वा. का. ७

Uttaram: Reply:

The word uttara literally means subsequent, concluding, reply, answer,

result etc. The figure Uttara is a poetic statement in the form of an

answer or question-and-answer. Here the question may not be put

verbally but its presumption can be made from the answer stated

therein, and the answer, if given, may not be very common, but can

be conceived by an intelligent reader. The number of question and
its anser may be one or more.

its answer may be one or more.
Uttara was first introduced by Rudrata and recognised by

Ruyyaka, Väāgbhaṭa, Visvanātha, Mammaṭa, Jagannātha and others.

Two varieties of Uttara are generally found:

(i) based on factual or objective type and

(ii) based on resemblance.

Of the two the first variety bears some resemblance with

Anumaāna (Poetic Inference), still they are different because there are

both sādhya and sādhana (ie. the major term or the thing to be

inferred and the minor term) in Anumāna, but the major term is

absent in Uttara.

The first variety of Uttara is also different from Kaāvyalinga

(Poetical Cause) since the answer cannot be justified in any way as

the cause of question in Kaāvyalinga.

Both Parisamkhyaā (Special Mention) and the second variety of

Kaāvyalinga are set in question-and-answer form, but the former

always excludes a famous and well-known answer. Bhoja includes

Uttara under Sāra.

eg 1. ahanyahani bhūtāni / gacchanti yama-mandiram.

eṣaāḥ sthiratvam icchanti / kim āścaryam ataḥ param.

अहन्यहनि भूतानि / गच्छन्ति यममन्दिरम् ।

शेषाः स्थिरत्वमिच्छन्ति / किमाश्चर्यमतः परम् ॥
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