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Bhavikam Vision

प्रणमत्युन्नतिहेतोर् जीवितहेतोर् विमुञ्चति प्राणान् ।

दुःखीयति सुखहेतोः को मूढ़:ढः सेवकादन्यः ॥

In order to get a lift he himself bends down,

For a good living he risks the life of his own,

For the sake of pleasure he suffers pain.

Who can be such a fool except the serving man?


In the first example, the beautiful feminine figure has been

very artistically represented without giving the details of its charm-

ing features, but simply stating its exquisite and incomparable

charm in a special mode of poetic diction.

In the second verse, the wretched and pathetic condition of

the life of a servant has been highlighted through contradictions of

his personal feelings and attitudes.

Hifachч Bhāvikam : Vision :

The word bhavaika literally means natural, real, innate or inherent.

This figure is otherwise called Bhāva which signifies the intention

or feeling of the poet. Bhāva is also synonymous to bhāvanā mean-

ing deep thinking with total absorption. In rhetoric, Bhāvika is a figure

of speech where some person or thing relating to the past or future

is represented so strikingly in the present context that the same

appears, as it were, real. Visvanātha explains that in such figurative

representation, the poet reconstructs such a charming and wonder-

ful thing or character so vividly or minutely that the reader's ima-

giative faculty conceives it, as if, real before his mind's eye.

It is very important to note that Daṇḍin, Bhämaha and Bhaṭṭi

acknowledge bhāvika as prabandha-guṇa (ie literary quality that per-

vades the entire composition and not merely a single word, phrase

or a sentence. It is for this reason that they do not cite any example

of this figure. In this context, bhāvika may also seem strikingly iden-

tical with prasāda guna which, according to rhetoricians, is per-

spicuity or lucidity of expression.

Bhavika is different from Bhräntiman, Atiśayokti and

Pratīyamāna-utprekṣā. Bhrāntimān (Illusion) creates some types of

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